Before we mentioned about rugs arts, according to us,we need to mention that its raw material sheep and causing appearing of the social conditions of that. Because, there is powerful relation among the rugs art, domestication of sheep,spreading of the tends and to get the felt for tends.According to historians,Huns Empire was created near the Altai mountains (Middle Asia) and the horses were domesticated by them first time.Cattle Raising of Nomadic Horsemen,during their immigration,they needed tends and things to carry easily by the animals. There was no mentality like a furniture like Europa in the closed areas.
Most of historical resource have already indicated that the first rugs must have been done by Turkish tribes in the middle Asia.They were living immigration life. Turks have made felts from wool of sheep and they draw ram's hurn on those felts and rugs like a stamp.You can see those themes in all the Turks countries cultures,
Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan,Azerbaijan and so on.You will see some samples like them in our website.
The oldest rug in the world was already found in Altai mountain at Pazırık area.It is wove using Turkish nodal. (Gördes Nodal).The different between Iranian and Turkish nodal is asymmetrical and symmetrical.And also Turkish nodal is symmetrical nodal like the oldest rug found in Pazırık (Middle Asia).So, we can say that the rug culture was appeared by Turks in Middle Asia first time.
RUG INDUSTRY OF OUR TIME
Middle Asia Rugs
Irak,Iran,Afganistan,India,Pakistan and Turkish countries have been producing the rugs for export.India and pakistan have improved modern textile industry but Afganistan.
It is not traditional thing to weave rugs in India like in Iran.It presents to India by Iranian Empire in 16 th century.
As a result, almost all Indian themes on the rugs came from Iran to India and the rugs produced in India are imitations of Iranians'. The wool is used in the rugs of Indians were thick.Because of this the folding of them is difficult than Iranian.But,also they are long lasting to decorate your floors and the walls.
There is a same situations in Pakistan about the rugs but today, Pakistan is 4 th the biggest rugs producer country in the world.
The Rugs industry of Afganistan is not regularly as much as like before they observed the political problems.A lot of rugs are produced in the country but they don't have regularly export for them because of the political situations.They have been exporting their rugs via Pakistan and India. Afghanistan rugs are resembled some Turkish and Turkmenistan rugs.They have really specific colors on their rugs and the colors are exacted.Recently, it is really difficult to find real Afghanistan rugs.We hope that they don't give up to weave real Afghanistan rugs in that political situations like last 20 years.
It is still unclear that when does Europa had woven the rugs arts.But, we know that about 1000 years ago they wove the rugs for basic covers and so on.The expanding of the rugs like eastern side in Europe has come truth by courtesy of Marco Polo (1254-1324) during crusade and because of some representatives in Venetian.In addition, Portugal colonial expansion in 14. century is affected to show up the rugs in Europe and known better than before.
DESIGNS,THEMES,SHAPES,COLORS, TECHNICS and so on...
The most beautiful rugs are wove in the countries like Iran,Turkey,Afghanistan,India,China.If you investigate into the museums about most beautiful rugs you can see that they were belong to sultans and came from temples of China's.Some of them were wove using gold silk and you can see on them the richest designs. The first people who those wove rugs are maybe old time Egyptians and Assyrians.This arts may be spread from them to all eastern countries.Who knows!!!
The real eastern rugs are wove by hand.They were using simple board with two bars above/below on it to weaving .They were stretching the strings between two bars to make a base for the rugs.Later, the person who weaves was sat in front of the board and made pass the strings which is colored already among the base strings from one side to the other.
They were knotting the strings colored for each string vertical and when they were finishing one line,they were press the knots with special tool like a comb.And then they start to make another line like before and go on.The most precious rugs has about and/or over 100 knots in 1 cm 2.When the weaving work you cannot see the basis strings from the top side of the rugs because of the strong pressing.
The theme before decided by the weaver was drew with the prepared colored strings.Those shapes are came from generation to generation.There are two kind of knotting methods.Turkish,DOUBLE KNOT (Gördes)and Persian,SINGLE KNOT (Sine). The Single knot will be more strong than the double knot and because of this Persian rugs are more qualified.
Eastern Rugs are named as per the region that where they made.There are 6 main group of them.India,China,Caucasian, Turkestan (Eastern Turkish Countries),Turkish and Iran. You will usually see on the rugs from chine as a theme like straight base and flowers or dragon pictures on them.The Indians styles are usually circle theme in the middle of the rugs and narrow borders around them.The Theorized as the best rugs from Iran according to world have some flowers and hunting scenic themes.There are really different themes on each main group. And,for example, there is another special rug style called 'prayer rug' using for pray by the Muslims .
The women and children were wove the rugs at the old time.The small girls were beginning to help their mothers to knot on the rugs by 6 years old.They were beginning to weave the rugs by themselves by 10 years old and collecting the rugs before get married for trousseau.Each family had a special theme like a stamp but they were add on these themes something else by and by.
It was impossible to see all the symbols on the eastern rugs at a glance and they were visible different from each glance.Squares, circles, flowers, trees, vines, stars, dragons, and in the form of a cross, each of these icons used to carry a meaning to the people who use them.Cross motif was health, happiness and good luck symbol,Circle was meaning the endless and Lotus flower was symbolizing happiness.
Probably, The showiest rug was made for Persian Kingdom Palace in 6 th century.It was 26 m2. It had flower beds,fruit trees,some rivers and paths on it.It was pure silk and the path was made with gold silk.The themes of the flowers,fruits and birds was made with pearls and other precious stones.They had made large green borders like grass with emeralds.
Dyes was prepared using fruits,vegetables,cokes and plants to get alive and permanent colors at weaving of the rugs.The men was usually making the dyeing works.The men were getting prestige who makes dyeing works.They were not clean the colors in their hands to show others that what they do.
They were farming the plants that they need to dye for the wool strings.The most important decision was how much needs to keep the strings in the color. The dyers were conditioning for to get more red color and describing their ability according the result. The getting red color of the oldest method was sheep bloods.Onions, blackberries, beets were the best way to get red color.
The saffron from Iran and soumak cokes,they were getting yellow colors,and all kind of blue colors from indigo plants.Later, there were mix each colors to the other and trying to get different colors.
The colors had also a meaning like themes.White was purity and holiness.Black was faults and mistakes.Red was activate and the love of religion.Yellow was evil and sadness.Blue was power and accuracy.
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